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In the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, several disciplines have seen how small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) or drones can make critical, and sometimes dangerous, tasks more efficient, precise, and accessible. This includes using drones to perform thermal imaging scans to detect air, moisture, and heat leakage from a building enclosure—the glass, concrete, insulation, and other materials separating the inside and outside environments. Leaky buildings can be costly and dangerous, leading to damaged finishes, increased energy costs, and mold growth within walls and roofs. Infrared thermography is a relatively cost-effective, easy-to-use, non-destructive tool for these types of conditions, but requires expert interpretation. SGH has implemented the use of drones on many projects, and by using drone technology, AEC professionals can get detailed results to make informed recommendations that address underlying building concerns. In this paper/presentation, we will explore how the AEC industry has implemented drone use to conduct thermal imaging scans of buildings, discuss some of the nuances with using drones around building enclosures, and discuss the differences compared to handheld scanning techniques. We will review industry standards and guidelines and share common project challenges and opportunities through a series of case studies. Kelsey Dunn, PE Simpson Gumpertz ​&​ Heger | Boston, MA Kelsey A. Dunn joined SGH in September of 2013 and is a senior staff engineer in SGH’s building technology group in Boston, MA. Dunn has been involved in a variety of projects involving investigation, design, and construction administration for existing building repair projects, rehabilitation of historic buildings, and new construction building-enclosure consulting. She has performed many partial and whole-building infrared scans using both the handheld and sUAS/drones while at SGH. Christopher Grey, PE Simpson Gumpertz ​&​ Heger | Boston, MA Christopher N. Grey joined SGH in 2011 and is a senior project manager in SGH’s building technology group in Boston, MA. His experience includes investigating, rehabilitating, and designing building enclosure systems on a wide range of project types, from historic buildings to contemporary high-rise structures. He specializes in the design, integration, construction administration, and in-situ testing of complex building enclosure systems with a focus on design efficiency, constructability, and performance. He works directly with architects, owners, contractors, and manufacturers in both the field and office through all project phases. Grey has performed many partial- and whole-building infrared scans, assists with managing SGH’s internal sUAS/drone usage and standards, is a certified sUAS Level I Thermographer, and also a contributing member of the American Architectural Manufacturer’s Association, serving on several industry standard task groups. Read More

The in situ performance of building enclosures can remain inferior to specified criteria due to a variety of factors. Although project documents often clearly define performance requirements for individual building enclosure components and systems, field quality control testing provisions are often underdeveloped. Since specification sections are typically written individually based on finished work product and specified materials may be covered in multiple specification sections, addressing the difficult building enclosure details are not always effectively addressed during the design phase. These inadequacies represent missed opportunities when considering the need for high performance buildings that will function to the satisfaction of building owners and end users. This session will include a summary of both common and more obscure exterior wall field quality control tests associated with air and weather barriers, claddings, windows, doors, curtain walls, and sealants. Simply specifying a test standard is likely insufficient for achieving the intended building enclosure performance. As such, opportunities exist to improve field quality control testing processes and procedures by means of developing project-specific testing matrices with input from building owners, designers, specifiers, consultants, manufacturers, and contractors. Lessons learned from a variety of projects will also be presented. Patrick Reicher is an Associate Principal with Raths, Raths & Johnson, Inc. Mr. Reicher is a licensed Structural Engineer in the State of Illinois with over 13 years of experience in forensic investigation, evaluation, repair design, and new construction consulting for buildings and enclosures. He is a Registered Exterior Wall Consultant (REWC), Registered Exterior Wall Observer (REWO), Certified Construction Specifier (CCS), and Certified Construction Contract Administrator (CCCA). He currently serves on RCI's REWO Exam Development Subcommittee and Manual of Practice Update Task Force, and as the Treasurer of the Chicago Area Chapter of RCI (CAC-RCI). He also serves on several committees and task forces as a professional member of the American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA). Jacob Arnold experience at Raths, Raths & Johnson, Inc. (RRJ) includes laboratory testing of building materials, in situ quality control field testing, and development of monitoring programs to investigate the effects of environmental conditions and the performance of building components. He manages the day-to-day operations of RRJ's laboratory and is responsible for test program design, equipment calibration, and data recording instrumentation. He is certified as a Construction Documents Technologist (CDT) through Constructions Specifications Institute (CSI) and is a member of ASTM International Committee D01 on Paint and Related Coatings, Materials, and Applications. Read More

A testing technician from an accredited field-testing lab is onsite and is reviewing the project documents when he notices that the windows do not meet or exceed the building design pressure. He identifies the problem, determining that 200 windows must be removed and 800 windows on the project must be rejected, costing the project months and several hundred thousand dollars. With a proper understanding of the code requirements, this could have been avoided. This presentation will cover the current practice and how it is flawed. It will explore the requirements for the International Residential Code (IRC) and the International Building Code (IBC) as they pertain to fenestration product certification. The speaker will specifically delve into the IBC 2012 and the newer section 1710, which requires that all windows and sliding glass doors be tested to conform to the North American Fenestration Standard (NAFS). The question, “What does this actually mean?” will be answered. This will be compared to the code requirements for storefronts/curtainwalls. The presenter will look at the NAFS, fenestration specifications, and building design pressures based upon an ASCE-7 calculation, and complete the presentation by answering the question, “What is the role of the building enclosure consultant in this process?” Ron Doddridge, FMPC Designs by Arielle | Daytona Beach, FL Ron Doddridge holds a B.S. in architecture and mechanical engineering, as well as in business/religion. He has 24 years of experience in fenestration and building enclosure consulting. Most recently, Doddridge completed his professional certification as an AAMA Fenestration Master, of which there are currently only 105 in the world. Read More

This presentation was initially provided at the 2021 Convention and Tradeshow in Phoenix, Arizona Do you get projects that may involve steep roofs? The Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues (RICOWI) has inspected hundreds of steep roofs as part of its Wind Investigation Program (WIP). These post-hurricane investigations have led to a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the wind performance of metal panel, tile, and asphalt shingle roofs. This presentation will discuss the systems, strengths, and detail where consultants and inspectors can focus to ensure a wind-resistant steep roof. Since the inception of the RICOWI WIP in 1996, there has been wind tunnel, full-scale and laboratory-designed wind research and testing. This research has resulted in better products and systems, but the fury and duration of hurricanes test every aspect of design and installation. Using photos from six WIP investigations, participants will see how systems have improved and where more attention is needed. This information can be used to design roofs for all climates and wind zones. David Roodvoets DLR Consultants | Tampa, FL David Roodvoets has had a leadership role in all six RICOWI hurricane investigations. He has worked with ARMA on asphalt shingle wind resistance and test standards and has been involved with post-storm wind damage investigations for 40 years. Roodvoets has worked with wind research engineers in testing of asphalt shingles, vegetative systems, photovoltaic systems, single-ply, and ballasted roof systems. As a result, manufacturers have incorporated improved design and installation requirements, and changes have been developed, advocated for, and incorporated into the ICC family of codes.   Read More

Presenters: Eric Chisholm, PEng, CEM, LEED AP, Toronto, ON Hannah Thevapalan, WSP Canada, Toronto, ON As buildings age, and standards for energy efficiency and carbon reduction increase, retrofit solutions must address both the skin and core of buildings. Façade retrofits (recladding or over-cladding) are often responses to deteriorating cladding elements, inefficient envelopes (thermal, moisture, etc.), aged materials, and/or aesthetic concerns. Recladding a building can increase thermal performance while increasing airtightness. Likewise, building core retrofits are responses to demands for more energy-efficient buildings with a lower carbon footprint. The Roadmap to Retrofits in Canada (by CaGBC) provides recommended actions to achieve Canada’s net energy-reduction targets by 2030, two of which include recommissioning and deep retrofits. As consultants, we have the opportunity and responsibility to approach emission reduction and envelope performance as one. Read More

This presentation initially took place at the 2020 Convention. Exterior stucco cladding can be categorized into one of two configuration types—either directly-applied to cementitious and masonry substrates (barrier walls), or applied over lathing that is mechanically fastened over a water-resistive barrier to steel- or wood-framed substrates (drainage walls). Both configurations often employ a range of stucco cladding jointing types serving different functional and aesthetic purposes. The objective facts of Why and When stucco jointing is needed or not needed, Where joints are needed, and How joints are designed and constructed are explored, including significant new information that promotes knowledge and understanding to improve the performance and quality of stucco claddings, which are often misunderstood. This article is based on historical development, design, and installation requirements; building code and reference standard requirements; and the results of recent stucco jointing performance testing. Provided illustrations will depict stucco jointing construction detailing, lathing accessories, splicing, intersection and termination requirements, and plaster application methods used to configure stucco jointing. This presentation factually and objectively explains essential requirements and considerations for effective stucco jointing to assist stucco cladding designers and craftsmen. Jointing facilitates drainage, accommodating building substrate movement and cement plaster shrinkage movement, thus reducing cracking, while it terminates cement plaster panel areas and has decorative purposes. Jeff Bowlsby, CCS, CCCA Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Inc. | San Francisco, CA Jeff Bowlsby is an architect and stucco consultant with 35 years of construction industry experience. He leads the ASTM C1063 Installation of Lathing and Furring for Portland Cement-Based Plaster task group and founded and leads the ASTM C11 Stucco Work Group that develops all ASTM stucco-related industry standards. He has completed performance testing of stucco assemblies and components, published several stucco-related technical articles in national industry professional journals, is the author of the stucco information resource StuccoMetrics.com, and is a frequent industry presenter on stucco wall claddings. Bowlsby is skilled in building science issues and the integration of all building enclosure systems and components. Read More

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